By: M. Gail Jones, Amy R. Taylor, and Michael R. Falvo
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Extreme Science: From Nano to Galactic
2010 Finalist for Distinguished Achievement Award
|Type of Product:||NSTA Press Book (also see downloadable PDF version of this book)
based on 2 reviews
|Grade Level:||Middle School, High School
|Read Inside:||Read a sample chapter: Billions of Us: Scale and Population
Our reviewers—top-flight teachers and other outstanding science educators—have determined that this resource is among the best available supplements for science teaching.
[Read the full review]
Whether we are imagining microbes or mammoths, dinosaurs or diatoms, molecules or stars, people of all ages are fascinated with the very large and the very small. New technologies have enabled scientists to investigate extremes of science previously unknown. An understanding of scale and scaling effects is of central importance to a scientific understanding of the world.
Help your middle and high school biology, Earth science, chemistry, physics, and mathematics students develop quantitative evaluation with Extreme Science. Authors Gail Jones, Amy Taylor, and Michael Falvo offer a detailed look at types of scale, measurement, powers of ten, estimation and models of scale, surface area to volume relationships, limits to size, and behaviors at different scales.
Scaling conceptions are one of the four recommended unifying themes in the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy. A knowledge of scaling will serve as a solid framework for students to anchor further learning and allow them to make cross-curricular connections between seemingly disparate topics.
The investigations in this book are designed to help students develop a comprehensive and flexible sense of scale through experiences with the quantitative units and tools of science. Investigations build on our research that has documented how people learn scale. To aid in comprehension, Extreme Science uses the 5Es (engage, explore, explain, extend, and evaluate) to illustrate each topic. By using this learning method, the activities help students learn to invent scales, develop benchmarks, estimate, and apply body rulers (estimating using fingers, arms, or pacing off distances). In so doing, students will come to understand scale on an intrinsic level and will appreciate that no problem is too big or too little to be scaleable. Comprehending scale at the largest and smallest levels is where a quantitative understanding of the world begins.
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Fields of science
Scientific habits of mind
Using scientific equipment
|Intended User Role:||Curriculum Supervisor, High-School Educator, Middle-Level Educator, Teacher
|Educational Issues:||Assessment of students, Classroom management, Community involvement, Curriculum, Educational research, Inquiry learning, Instructional materials, Interdisciplinary, Integrating technology, Professional development, Science safety, Teacher content knowledge, Teacher preparation, Teaching strategies
Chapter 1. What Is Scale?
Chapter 2. Types of Scale
Chapter 3. Oops! I Did It Again: Errors in Measurement
Powers of Ten
Chapter 4. Sort It Out
Chapter 5. It’s Not All Relative: Relative versus Absolute
Chapter 6. The Scale of the Solar System
Chapter 7. Time Flies
Estimation and Models
Chapter 8. Billions of Us: Scale and Populations
Chapter 9. Scale It!
Chapter 10. Mega Virus
Chapter 11. Your World or Mine? Perspectives
Chapter 12. Eye in the Sky: GIS and Scale
Chapter 13. Drops to the Ocean: A GIS Study of River Basins
Chapter 14. Zoom, Zoom: Magnification
Surface Area-to-Volume Relationships
Chapter 15. That’s Hot! The Effect of Size on Rate of Heat Loss
Chapter 16. Sweet! Exploring Surface Area of Sugar Molecules
Limits to Size
Chapter 17. Captivating Cubes
Chapter 18. Eggsactly
Chapter 19. Attack of the Giant Bugs
Behaviors and Scale
Chapter 20. Flying Foam: The Scale of Forces
Chapter 21. Stick With It!
Chapter 22. Fractals: Self-Similar at Different Scales
Chapter 23. Screening My Calls: Scale and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Chapter 24. Stringy Chemistry and States of Matter
Chapter 25. Our Amazing Senses
Chapter 26. Beetlemice Multitudes!!! Power Law and Exponential Scaling
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National Standards Correlation
This resource has 71 correlations with the National Standards.
- Physical Science
- Properties of objects and materials
- Objects have many observable properties, including the ability to react with other substances. (K-4)
- Objects have many observable properties, including size, weight, shape, color, and temperature. (K-4)
- The observable properties of objects can be measured using tools, such as rulers, balances, and thermometers. (K-4)
- Objects are made of one or more materials, such as paper, wood, and metal. (K-4)
- Objects can be described by the properties of the materials from which they are made. (K-4)
- Materials can exist in different states--solid, liquid, and gas. (K-4)
- Properties and changes of properties in matter
- A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility. (5-8)
- Structure and properties of matter
- Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances and angles between molecules or atoms and therefore the energy that binds them together. (9-12)
- In solids the structure is nearly rigid; in liquids molecules or atoms move around each other but do not move apart; and in gases molecules or atoms move almost independently of each other and are mostly far apart. (9-12)
- Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism
- Light can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by the object. (K-4)
- Transfer of Energy
- Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature. (5-8)
- Motion and Forces
- Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass. (9-12)
- The strength of the gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (9-12)
- An object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line. (inertia) (5-8)
- Interactions of energy and matter
- Electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is accelerated or decelerated. (9-12)
- Electromagnetic waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. (9-12)
- Life Science
- The characteristics of organisms
- Each plant or animal has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction. For example, humans have distinct body structures for walking, holding, seeing, and talking. (K-4)
- Structure and function in living systems
- Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, organs, tissues, organ systems, whole organisms, and ecosystems (5-8)
- All organisms are composed of cells--the fundamental unit of life (5-8)
- Most organisms are single cells; other organisms, including humans, are multicellular. (5-8)
- Each type of cell, tissue, and organ has a distinct structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole. (5-8)
- Populations and ecosystems
- A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. (5-8)
- All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Diversity and adaptations of organisms
- Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival. (5-8)
- Fossils indicate that many organisms that lived long ago are extinct. (5-8)
- The cell
- Cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. (9-12)
- Every cell is surrounded by a membrane that separates it from the outside world. (9-12)
- Cell function regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division. (9-12)
- Interdependence of organisms
- Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. (9-12)
- Earth Science
- Properties of earth materials
- Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time.
- Structure of the earth system
- A watershed is entire areas of land that are drained by a river.
- Earth's history
- Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed (5-8)
- Earth in the solar system
- The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. (5-8)
- The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system. (5-8)
- Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. (5-8)
- Origin and evolution of the earth system
- The early earth was very different from the planet we live on today. (9-12)
- Geologic time can be estimated by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations. (9-12)
- Current methods of measuring geologic time include using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in rocks to measure the time since the rock was formed. (9-12)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.
- Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. (9-12)
- Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. (9-12)
- Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. (9-12)
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer.
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Simple instruments, such as magnifiers, thermometers, and rulers, provide more information than scientists obtain using only their senses.
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry. (5-8)
- Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations. (5-8)
- Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories. (5-8)
- Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or designed systems function. (9-12)
- Conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries. (9-12)
- Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data. (9-12)
- In presenting data, graphs are used to convey comparisons or trends. (9-12)
- Mathematical tools and models guide and improve the posing of questions, gathering data, constructing explanations and communicating results. (9-12)
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Characteristics and changes in populations
- Human populations include groups of individuals living in a particular location.
- The size of a human population can increase or decrease.
- One important characteristic of a human population is the population density--the number of individuals of a particular population that lives in a given amount of space.
- Population growth
- Populations can increase through linear or exponential growth, with effects on resource use and environmental pollution. (9-12)
- History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
- Science requires different abilities, depending on such factors as the field of study and type of inquiry. (5-8)
- Science is not separate from society but rather science is a part of society. (9-12)
- Process Standards for Professional Development
- Introduce teachers to scientific literature, media, and technological resources that expand their science knowledge and their ability to access further knowledge. (NSES)
- Teaching Standards
- Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students.
- Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners.
- Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers
- Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science.
- Teachers provide students with the time, space, and resources needed to learn science.
- Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.
- Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students.
- Identify and use resources outside
||Great lessons with poor instructions
||Reviewed by: Alfonso on September 6, 2012
||Although the content and the class activities in the book are great, the instructions are poorly written. Many details for how to carry out the class activities or lessons are missing and the resources for each activity are outdated web links or of poor quality.
||From Nano to Galactic
||Reviewed by: Dorothy E. Matyskiel (Lake Worth, FL) on June 2, 2009
||Helping the student to apply the use of scale will not only be an effective learning tool for science, but also they will find its use applicable across the disciplines.
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