|Type of Product:||e-Book (our e-books are in PDF format and can be viewed on your computer or any compatible reading device) (also see print version of this book)
|Grade Level:||High School
Assessing Toxic Risk is a comprehensive guide to student research in toxicology. It includes an overview of basic principles of toxicology and how they are used to assess chemical risks. It provides simple but authentic research protocols to engage students in the process of testing chemical toxicity by conducting bioassays using lettuce seeds, duckweed, and Daphnia. It also contains guidelines for integrating peer review and other collaborative knowledge-building into classroom science. Toxicology makes an ideal topic for student research because it provides a natural link between biology, chemistry, environmental science, and human health; it highlights the connections between science and public policy; and builds critical-thinking skills.
Ideas For Use
A progression of worksheets guides students through each step of the inquiry process, providing structure but flexibility in designing and conducting meaningful projects.
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Scientific habits of mind
|Intended User Role:||Curriculum Supervisor, High-School Educator, Teacher
|Educational Issues:||Achievement, Assessment of students, Classroom management, Curriculum, Educational research, Inquiry learning, Instructional materials, Learning theory, Teacher content knowledge, Teacher preparation, Teaching strategies
• Environmental Inquiry
• Meeting the Standards
• Research Opportunities
• Critical Thinking
LEVELS OF INQUIRY
• Guiding Protocol-Level Inquiry
• Conducting Interactive Research
GUIDING STUDENT INQUIRY
• About the Student Edition
Section 1 – UNDERSTANDING TOXIC RISK:
• Model Responses
Section 2 – TOXICOLOGY PROTOCOLS: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
• Choosing Bioassay Organisms
• Making Serial Dilutions (Protocol 1)
• Carrying Out a Dose/Response Experiment (Protocols 2-4)
• Testing Environmental Samples (Protocol 5)
• Purifying Solutions and Testing for Reduced Toxicity (Protocols 6-7)
Section 3 – BEYOND PROTOCOLS: CONDUCTING INTERACTIVE RESEARCH
• Why Interactive Research?
• Choosing a Research Question
• Analyzing the Data
• Summarizing the Data
• A Look at Variability
• Interpreting the Results
• Conclusions About Toxicity
• Conclusions About the Environment
• Recommendations About What to Try Next
• Presenting a Report and Engaging in Peer Review
• Performance Assessment
• Example Assessment Rubrics for EI Student Research
-Assessment Criteria for Student Research
-Assessment Rubric for Poster Presentations
-Assessment Rubric for Written Reports
• Sample Test Questions
• Culturing Duckweed
• Culturing Daphnia
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National Standards Correlation
This resource has 24 correlations with the National Standards.
- Physical Science
- Chemical Reactions
- Reaction rates depend on how often the reacting atoms and molecules encounter one another, on the temperature, and on the properties--including shape--of the reacting species. (9-12)
- Life Science
- Biological evolution
- The millions of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent from common ancestors. (9-12)
- Interdependence of organisms
- Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. (9-12)
- Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected. (9-12)
- Behavior of organisms
- Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. (9-12)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. (9-12)
- Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. (9-12)
- Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. (9-12)
- Communicate and defend a scientific argument. (9-12)
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Science and Technology
- Understanding about science and technology
- Technology provides tools for investigations, inquiry, and analysis.
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Personal and community health
- The severity of disease symptoms is dependent on many factors, such as human resistance and the virulence of the disease-producing organism. (9-12)
- Environmental quality
- A factor that influences environmental quality is resource use. (9-12)
- Natural and human-induced hazards
- Natural and human-induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk. (9-12)
- Sci and Tech in local, natl, and global challenges
- The influence of humans on other organisms occurs through pollution--which changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water. (9-12)
- History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
- Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making public the results of work. Violations of such norms do occur, but scientists responsible for such violations are censured by their peers. (9-12)
- Nature of science
- In areas where active research is being pursued and in which there is not a great deal of experimental or observational evidence and understanding, it is normal for scientists to differ with one another about the interpretation of the evidence or theory being considered. (5-8)
- It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists. As scientific knowledge evolves, major disagreements are eventually resolved through such interactions between scientists. (5-8)
- Content Standards
- Quality Teaching
- Deepens educators’ content knowledge, provides them with research-based instructional strategies to assist students in meeting rigorous academic standards, and prepares them to use various types of classroom assessments appropriately. (NSDC)
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