Edited by: Linda Froschauer
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The Frugal Science Teacher, 6-9: Strategies and Activities
|Type of Product:||NSTA Press Book (also see downloadable PDF version of this book)
|Grade Level:||Elementary School, Middle School, High School
|Read Inside:||Read a sample chapter: Making Mendel’s Model Manageable
Our reviewers—top-flight teachers and other outstanding science educators—have determined that this resource is among the best available supplements for science teaching.
[Read the full review]
Teachers of all grades and disciplines often dip into their own wallets to outfit their classrooms with materials and supplies that school and district budgets can’t—or won’t—cover. Science teachers tend to find themselves supplementing their shrinking funds with even greater frequency.
This collection of essays, carefully selected by former NSTA president and current Science and Children editor Linda Froschauer, outlines creative and inexpensive ways for sixth- through ninth-grade science teachers to keep their expenses to a minimum in five categories:
• Student-Created Constructions
• Teacher-Created Constructions and Repurposed Materials
• Teaching Strategies That Maximize the Budget
• Instructional Lessons That Maximize the Budget
• Funds and Materials
Chapters provide inexpensive alternatives to costly classroom projects, offer re-imagined uses for items teachers already have at home or school, and suggest new and untapped resources for materials. Even more important than offering ideas for frugality, the activities and strategies—such as “Wiffle Ball Physics,” “Geology on a Sand Budget,” “Forensics on a Shoestring Budget,” and “Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?”—enhance teachers’ abilities to develop their students’ conceptual understanding. A comprehensive list of the many free resources available from the National Science Teachers Association is also included.
“By following the recommendations found in this book,” writes Froschauer, a retired classroom teacher of 35 years, “you will find creative ways to keep expenses down and stretch your funds while building student understanding.”
(mouse over for full classification)
Conservation of energy
Newton’s laws of motion
Scientific habits of mind
|Intended User Role:||Curriculum Supervisor, Elementary-Level Educator, High-School Educator, Middle-Level Educator, Teacher
|Educational Issues:||Assessment of students, Classroom management, Curriculum, Educational research, Inquiry learning, Instructional materials, Interdisciplinary, Professional development, Science safety, Teacher preparation, Teaching strategies
by Linda Froschauer
Part 1. Student-Created Constructions
Chapter 1. Geology on a Sand Budget: Students Use Sand to Model Earth Science Processes and Features
by Jacqueline Kane
Chapter 2. Roller Coaster Inquiry
by Carla Johnson
Chapter 3. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?
by Kenneth King
Chapter 4. String Racers
by Bruce Yeany
Chapter 5. The Tower Challenge
by John Eichinger
Part 2. Teacher-Created Constructions and Repurposed Materials
Chapter 6. Recycling Aluminum Cans in the Lab: Two Inexpensive Inquiry Activities
by Ann Ross and Tillman Kennon
Chapter 7. Materials Repurposed: Find a Wealth of Free Resources at Your Local Recycling Center
by Orvil L. White and J. Scott Townsend
Chapter 8. Frugal Equipment Substitutions: A Quick Guide
by Erin Peters
Chapter 9. Making the Most of Limited Lab Facilities
by Sandy Buczynski
Chapter 10. Balloon in a Bottle
by Bruce Yeany
Chapter 11. Shoe Box Spectroscopy
by David W. Clarke
Part 3. Teaching Strategies That Maximize the Science Budget
Chapter 12. Creative Projects Stimulate Classroom Learning
by Staci Wilson
Chapter 13. Making Connections Fun
by Arlene Marturano
Chapter 14. Wiffle Ball Physics
by Rachael Lancor
Chapter 15. Survivor Science: Out Observe. Out Measure. Out Analyze.
by Kathy Costello
Posters and Cartoons
Chapter 16. History of Science Poster Challenge
by Elizabeth James
Chapter 17. Cartooning Your Way to Student Motivation
by Derek Sallis, Audrey C. Rule, and Ethan Jennings
Chapter 18. Cartoons: An Alternative Learning Assessment
by Youngjin Song, Misook Heo, Larry Krumenaker, and Deborah Tippins
Chapter 19. Science Newsletters
by Melissa Nail
Chapter 20. The Use of Stations to Develop Inquiry Skills and Content for Rock Hounds
by William R. Veal and Anna T. Chandler
Chapter 21. Examining Current Events in Science, Mathematics, and Technology
by John Eichinger
Part 4. Instructional Lessons That Maximize the Science Budget
Chapter 22. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget
by Joseph A. Greco
Chapter 23. Making Mendel’s Model Manageable
by Karen Mesmer
Chapter 24. Lighten Up Your Lesson: Matter, Optics, and Bubbles
by Jeffrey S. Maxwell, Beixin Julie He, Wendy deProphetis, and J. Aura Gimm
Chapter 25. Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince’s Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students
by Meera Chandrasekhar and Rebecca Litherland
Chapter 26. Growth Potential
by Dana M. Barry
Chapter 27. Refraction of Sound
by Michael Horton
Chapter 28. Helicopter Seeds and Hypotheses … That’s Funny!
by Leslie Wampler and Christopher Dobson
Chapter 29. An Outdoor Learning Center
by the Natural Resources Conservation Services, USDA, and NSTA
Chapter 30. Inquiry Goes Outdoors: What Can We Learn at the Pond?
by Virginia Bourdeau and Mary E. Arnold
Chapter 31. Schoolyard Geology
by Beverly Hagberg and Donna R. Sterling
Part 5. Funds and Materials
Chapter 32. You Can Get What You Want: Tried-and-True Tips for Securing Funds and Resources From the Community
by Yvonne Delgado
Chapter 33. Need Money? Get a Grant! Tips on Writing Grants for Classroom Materials and Larger Items
by Linda Bryson
Chapter 34. Science on a Shoestring: Stock Your Shelves With Free and Inexpensive Science Materials
by Sandy Watson
Chapter 35. Got Stuff?
by Antonio M. Niro
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National Standards Correlation
This resource has 95 correlations with the National Standards.
- Physical Science
- Properties of objects and materials
- Materials can exist in different states--solid, liquid, and gas. (K-4)
- Properties and changes of properties in matter
- A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility. (5-8)
- The characteristic properties of a substance are independent of the amount of the sample. (5-8)
- A mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances using one or more of the characteristic properties. (5-8)
- Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties. (5-8)
- Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways; metals are an example of such a group. (5-8)
- Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. (5-8)
- Structure and properties of matter
- Atoms may be bonded together into molecules or crystalline solids. (9-12)
- Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances and angles between molecules or atoms and therefore the energy that binds them together. (9-12)
- In solids the structure is nearly rigid; in liquids molecules or atoms move around each other but do not move apart; and in gases molecules or atoms move almost independently of each other and are mostly far apart. (9-12)
- Position and motion of objects
- An object's motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time. (velocity) (K-4)
- Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism
- Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. (K-4)
- Light can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by the object. (K-4)
- Heat can move from one object to another by conduction. (K-4)
- Transfer of Energy
- Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature. (5-8)
- Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object—emitted by or scattered from it—must enter the eye. (5-8) (5-8)
- Motion and Forces
- Catapults are an ancient military device made for hurling projectiles. They are made from a variety of simple machines.
- Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. (9-12)
- The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. (9-12)
- Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object. (9-12)
- Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass. (9-12)
- The strength of the gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (9-12)
- Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion. (Acceleration) (5-8)
- The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. (5-8)
- Motion can be measured and represented on a graph.
- An object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line. (inertia) (5-8)
- If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. (5-8)
- Conservation of energy and increase in disorder
- All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion; potential energy, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as electromagnetic waves. (9-12)
- Interactions of energy and matter
- Electromagnetic waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. (9-12)
- Life Science
- Reproduction and heredity
- Each gene carries a single unit of information. (5-8)
- Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. (5-8)
- The characteristics of an organism can be described in terms of a combination of traits. (5-8)
- Populations and ecosystems
- A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. (5-8)
- All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Diversity and adaptations of organisms
- Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. (5-8)
- Interdependence of organisms
- Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. (9-12)
- Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. (9-12)
- Earth Science
- Properties of earth materials
- Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.
- Soils have properties of color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants, including those in our food supply.
- Structure of the earth system
- Some changes in the solid earth can be described as the "rock cycle." (5-8)
- Old rocks at the earth's surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. Eventually, those new rocks may be brought to the surface by the forces that drive plate motions, and the rock cycle continues. (5-8)
- Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. (5-8)
- Soils are often found in layers, with each having a different chemical composition and texture. (5-8)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment. (K-4)
- Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses. (K-4)
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Communicate investigations and explanations.
- Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
- Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
- Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. (9-12)
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry. (9-12)
- In presenting data, graphs are used to convey comparisons or trends. (9-12)
- Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
- Implementing proposed solutions
- Design a solution or product.
- Evaluate completed technological designs or products
- Identify a problem or design an opportunity. (9-12)
- Understanding about science and technology
- Scientists and engineers often work in teams with different individuals doing different things that contribute to the results. This understanding focuses primarily on teams working together and secondarily, on the combination of scientist and engineer teams.
- Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences. (5-8)
- Technology provides tools for investigations, inquiry, and analysis.
- Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technological solutions have trade-offs, such as safety, cost, efficiency, and appearance. (5-8)
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Types of resources
- Resources are things that we get from the living and nonliving environment to meet the needs and wants of a population.
- Some resources are basic materials, such as air, water, and soil.
- If used, resources can be extended through recycling and decreased use.
- Populations, resources, and environments
- Causes of environmental degradation and resource depletion vary from region to region and from country to country. (5-8)
- Natural resources
- Human populations use resources in the environment in order to maintain and improve their existence. (9-12)
- Natural resources have been and will continue to be used to maintain human populations. (9-12)
- The earth does not have infinite resources. (9-12)
- Increasing human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes that renew some resources, and it depletes those resources that cannot be renewed. (9-12)
- Humans use many natural systems as resources. (9-12)
- Natural systems have the capacity to reuse waste, but that capacity is limited. (9-12)
- Natural systems can change to an extent that exceeds the limits of organisms to adapt naturally or humans to adapt technologically. (9-12)
- Environmental quality
- A factor that influences environmental quality is resource use. (9-12)
- A factor that influences environmental quality is overconsumption. (9-12)
- Process Standards for Professional Development
- Introduce teachers to scientific literature, media, and technological resources that expand their science knowledge and their ability to access further knowledge. (NSES)
- Uses learning strategies appropriate to the intended goal. (NSDC)
- Content Standards
- Quality Teaching
- Deepens educators’ content knowledge, provides them with research-based instructional strategies to assist students in meeting rigorous academic standards, and prepares them to use various types of classroom assessments appropriately. (NSDC)
- Teaching Standards
- Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students.
- Select science content and adapt and design curricula to meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, abilities, and experiences of students.
- Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners.
- Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers
- Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science.
- Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students.
- Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas.
- Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning.
- Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning.
- Teachers provide students with the time, space, and resources needed to learn science.
- Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations.
- Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.
- Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students.
- Identify and use resources outside
- Engage students in designing the learning environment.
- Teachers of science actively participate in the ongoing planning and development of the school science program.
- Plan and develop the school science program.
- Participate in decisions concerning the allocation of time and other resources to the science program.
“This resource presents inexpensive alternatives to costly classroom projects using common household materials and school supplies. Step-by-step instructions for projects are illustrated with b&w photos and diagrams. The book gives tips for equipment substitutions and making the most of limited lab facilities, and offers tips on writing grants for classroom materials and securing funds from the community. Projects and ideas include student-created and teacher-created constructions, such as shoebox spectroscopy, in addition to teaching strategies that maximize the budget, such as games, posters, science stations, and an outdoor learning center. The book includes a list of free resources available from the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Froschauer is former president of the NSTA.”
Annotation ©2010 Book News Inc. Portland, OR
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