By: Lawrence F. Lowery
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The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Revised 2nd Edition: Ideas for Teaching in Elementary and Middle School
|Type of Product:||NSTA Press Book (also see downloadable PDF version of this book)
|Grade Level:||Elementary School, Middle School
|Read Inside:||Read a sample chapter: Weather
Our reviewers—top-flight teachers and other outstanding science educators—have determined that this resource is among the best available supplements for science teaching.
[Read the full review]
“This sourcebook was created because science should be memorable, not memorizable.” — from the Introduction to The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Revised 2nd Edition
Think of this unique reference book as Inspiration Central for elementary and middle school science teachers. Fully updated with content selected to build on the AAAS and National Science Education Standards, this new edition is full of hundreds of entries that can spark your thinking the next time you need to fill in a gap in your curriculum, add a fresh element to your textbook lessons, or extend and enrich hands-on activities.
The Everyday Science Sourcebook is structured like an easy-to-use thesaurus. Just look up a topic in the Index, note the reference number, and then use that number to find a wealth of related activities in the Entry section. For example, looking up meteorology can lead you to notes on the Earth’s temperature. From there, you’ll see entries on how students can make a liquid thermometer, graph air temperatures, and measure the conversion of solar energy to heat energy.
Six broad content categories provide the framework for the main body of this book, the Entry section:
• Inorganic matter
• Organic matter
• Inference models
• Instructional apparatus, materials, and systems
The Everyday Science Sourcebook deserves a prominent spot on your bookshelf. Refer to it daily as a springboard for ideas that make science memorable.
(mouse over for full classification)
Phases of the moon
Conservation of energy
Newton’s laws of motion
Acids and bases
Scientific habits of mind
Using scientific equipment
|Intended User Role:||Elementary-Level Educator, Middle-Level Educator, Teacher
The Need to Improve Science Instruction
This Sourcebook and National Science Standards
How to Use this Sourcebook
Features of this Sourcebook
100–199 INORGANIC MATTER
140 Earth Science
150 The Oceans
200–299 ORGANIC MATTER
230 Other Organisms
400–499 INFERENCE MODELS
410 Atoms and Molecules
511 Simple Machines
512 Complex Machines
521 Simple Devices
522 Complex Devices
531 Simple Vehicles
532 Complex Vehicles
600–699 INSTRUCTIONAL APPARATUS, MATERIALS, AND SYSTEMS
610 Safety Precautions
620 General Equipment
621 Heat Sources
622 Support Stands
630 Measuring Systems and Instruments
631 Measuring Systems
632 Measuring Instruments
640 Plant and Animal Containers
650 Equipment for Collecting
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National Standards Correlation
This resource has 142 correlations with the National Standards.
- Physical Science
- Properties of objects and materials
- Objects have many observable properties, including the ability to react with other substances. (K-4)
- Objects have many observable properties, including size, weight, shape, color, and temperature. (K-4)
- The observable properties of objects can be measured using tools, such as rulers, balances, and thermometers. (K-4)
- Objects are made of one or more materials, such as paper, wood, and metal. (K-4)
- Objects can be described by the properties of the materials from which they are made. (K-4)
- The properties of objects can be used to separate or sort a group of objects or materials.
- Materials can exist in different states--solid, liquid, and gas. (K-4)
- Some common materials, such as water, can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling. (K-4)
- Properties and changes of properties in matter
- A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility. (5-8)
- The characteristic properties of a substance are independent of the amount of the sample. (5-8)
- A mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances using one or more of the characteristic properties. (5-8)
- Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties. (5-8)
- In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved. (5-8)
- Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways; metals are an example of such a group. (5-8)
- Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. (5-8)
- There are more than 100 known elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds, which account for the living and nonliving substances that we encounter. (5-8)
- Position and motion of objects
- The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background. (K-4)
- An object's motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time. (velocity) (K-4)
- The size of the change of position and motion is related to the strength of the push or pull. (K-4)
- Sound is produced by vibrating objects. (K-4)
- The pitch of the sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration. (K-4)
- The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. (K-4)
- Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism
- Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. (K-4)
- Light can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by the object. (K-4)
- Heat can move from one object to another by conduction. (K-4)
- Electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects. (K-4)
- Electrical circuits require a complete loop through which an electrical current can pass. (K-4)
- Magnets attract and repel each other and certain kinds of other materials. (K-4)
- Heat can be produced in many ways, such as burning, rubbing, or mixing one substance with another. (K-4)
- Transfer of Energy
- Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, nuclei, and the nature of a chemical. (5-8)
- Energy is transferred in many ways. (5-8)
- Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature. (5-8)
- Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object—emitted by or scattered from it—must enter the eye. (5-8) (5-8)
- To see an object, light from that object--emitted by or scattered from it--must enter the eye.
- Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced. (5-8)
- In most chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. (5-8)
- Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be involved in energy transfers. (5-8)
- The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth's surface. (5-8)
- The sun loses energy by emitting light. (5-8)
- A tiny fraction of that light reaches the earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth.
- The sun's energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. (5-8)
- Motion and Forces
- Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion. (Acceleration) (5-8)
- The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. (5-8)
- Motion can be measured and represented on a graph.
- An object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line. (inertia) (5-8)
- If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. (5-8)
- Life Science
- The characteristics of organisms
- Organisms have basic needs. For example, animals need air, water, and food; plants require air, water, nutrients, and light. (K-4)
- Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs can be met. (K-4)
- Each plant or animal has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction. For example, humans have distinct body structures for walking, holding, seeing, and talking. (K-4)
- Humans and other organisms have senses that help them detect internal and external cues. (K-4)
- The behavior of individual organisms is influenced by internal cues (such as hunger) and by external cues (such as a change in the environment). (K-4)
- Organisms can survive only in environments in which their
needs can be met. (K-4)
- The world has many different environments, and distinct
environments support the life of different types of organisms. (K-4)
- Life cycles of organisms
- Plants and animals have life cycles that include being born, developing into adults, reproducing, and eventually dying. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms. (K-4)
- Plants and animals closely resemble their parents. (K-4)
- Many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents of the organism, but other characteristics result from an individual's interactions with the environment. Inherited characteristics include the color of flowers and the number of limbs of an animal. (K-4)
- Organisms and environments
- All animals depend on plants. Some animals eat plants for food. Other animals eat animals that eat the plants.
- An organism's patterns of behavior are related to the nature of that organism's environment, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the physical characteristics of the environment.
- When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.
- All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live. Some of these changes are detrimental to the organism or other organisms, whereas others are beneficial.
- Humans depend on their natural and constructed environments. Humans change environments in ways that can be either beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.
- Structure and function in living systems
- Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function (5-8)
- All organisms are composed of cells--the fundamental unit of life (5-8)
- Most organisms are single cells; other organisms, including humans, are multicellular. (5-8)
- Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life. They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells. (5-8)
- Reproduction and heredity
- Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems; because no individual organism lives forever, reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species. (5-8)
- In many species, including humans, females produce eggs and males produce sperm. (5-8)
- Plants also reproduce sexually--the egg and sperm are produced in the flowers of flowering plants. (5-8)
- Regulation and behavior
- All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment. (5-8)
- Regulation of an organism's internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep conditions within the range required to survive (homeostasis). (5-8)
- Behavior is one kind of response an organism can make to an internal or environmental stimulus. (5-8)
- An organism's behavior evolves through adaptation to its environment. (5-8)
- How a species moves, obtains food, reproduces, and responds to danger are based in the species' evolutionary history (5-8)
- Populations and ecosystems
- A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. (5-8)
- All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem. (5-8)
- For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. (5-8)
- Energy passes from organism to organism in food webs (5-8)
- The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.
- Diversity and adaptations of organisms
- Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. (5-8)
- Although different species might look dissimilar, the unity among organisms becomes apparent from an analysis of internal structures, the similarity of their chemical processes, and the evidence of common ancestry. (5-8)
- Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations (5-8)
- Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. (5-8)
- Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment (5-8)
- Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival. (5-8)
- Fossils indicate that many organisms that lived long ago are extinct. (5-8)
- Extinction of species is common; most of the species that have lived on the earth no longer exist. (5-8)
- Earth Science
- Properties of earth materials
- Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.
- The varied Earth materials have different physical and chemical properties, which make them useful in different ways, for example, as building materials, as sources of fuel, or for growing the plants we use as food.
- Earth materials provide many of the resources that humans use.
- Soils have properties of color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants, including those in our food supply.
- Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time.
- Objects in the sky
- The sun, moon, stars, clouds, birds, and airplanes all have properties, locations, and movements that can be observed and described.
- The sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the earth.
- Changes in earth and sky
- The surface of the earth changes.
- Some changes to the surface of the Earth are due to slow processes, such as erosion and weathering
- Some changes to the surface of the Earth are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes
- Weather changes from day to day and over the seasons.
- Weather can be described by measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation.
- Objects in the sky have patterns of movement.
- The sun appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons.
- The moon moves across the sky on a daily basis much like the sun.
- The observable shape of the moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.
- Structure of the earth system
- Old rocks at the earth's surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. Eventually, those new rocks may be brought to the surface by the forces that drive plate motions, and the rock cycle continues. (5-8)
- Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. (5-8)
- Soils are often found in layers, with each having a different chemical composition and texture. (5-8)
- Water, which covers the majority of the earth's surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the "water cycle." (5-8)
- Water evaporates from the earth's surface, rises and cools as it moves to higher elevations, condenses as rain or snow, and falls to the surface where it collects in lakes, oceans, soil, and in rocks underground. (5-8)
- Water is a solvent. As it passes through the water cycle it dissolves minerals and gases and carries them to the oceans. (5-8)
- The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. (5-8)
- The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations. (5-8)
- Clouds, formed by the condensation of water vapor, affect weather and climate. (5-8)
- Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. (5-8)
- Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. (5-8)
- Earth's history
- The earth processes we see today, including erosion, movement of lithospheric plates, and changes in atmospheric composition, are similar to those that occurred in the past. (5-8)
- Earth history is also influenced by occasional catastrophes, such as the impact of an asteroid or comet. (5-8)
- Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed (5-8)
- Earth in the solar system
- The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. (5-8)
- The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system. (5-8)
- Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. (5-8)
- The motions of most objects in the solar system explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the moon, and eclipses.
- Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the motion in the solar system. (5-8)
- Gravity alone holds us to the earth's surface and explains the phenomena of the tides. (5-8)
- The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth's surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle. (5-8)
- Seasons result from variations in the amount of the sun's energy hitting the surface, due to the tilt of the earth's rotation on its axis and the length of the day. (5-8)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment. (K-4)
- Plan and conduct a simple investigation. (K-4)
- Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses. (K-4)
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Communicate investigations and explanations.
- Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.
- Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
- Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world. (K-4)
- Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer.
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Simple instruments, such as magnifiers, thermometers, and rulers, provide more information than scientists obtain using only their senses.
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations. (5-8)
- Earth Science
- Properties of earth materials
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