This directed case study examines the molecular basis of cystic fibrosis to emphasize the relationship between the genetic code stored in a DNA sequence and the encoded protein’s structure and function. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein that functions to help maintain salt and water balance along the surface of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. This case introduces students to “Maggie,” who has just been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. The students must identify the mutation causing Maggie’s disease by transcribing and translating a portion of the wildtype and mutated CFTR gene. Students then compare the three-dimensional structures of the resulting proteins to better understand the effect a single amino acid mutation can have on the overall shape of a protein. Students also review the concepts of tonicity and osmosis to examine how the defective CFTR protein leads to an increase in the viscosity of mucus in cystic fibrosis patients. This case was developed for use in an introductory college-level biology course but could also be adapted for use in an upper-level cell or molecular biology course.