By: Paul D. Fullagar and Nancy W. West
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Project Earth Science: Geology, Revised 2nd Edition
|Type of Product:||NSTA Press Book (also see downloadable PDF version of this book)
|Publication Title:||Project Earth Science Series
|Grade Level:||Elementary School, Middle School, High School
|Read Inside:||Read a sample chapter: Solid or Liquid? Rock Behavior Within Earth
Our reviewers—top-flight teachers and other outstanding science educators—have determined that this resource is among the best available supplements for science teaching.
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How well can your students …
• Explain the distribution of earthquakes?
• Model volcanic eruptions?
• Demonstrate plate motions and interactions?
• Describe seafloor changes?
• Think in terms of geologic time?
Project Earth Science: Geology, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on how plate tectonics explain characteristics and features of Earth. Fifteen hands-on, teacher-tested, classroom activities that use readily available materials provide straightforward and up-to-date explanations of geologic processes and cycles. Students model plate movement and seafloor spreading, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and formation of geologic structures. They learn what causes earthquakes, mountain building, and continent-plus-plate movement. Background materials for students and teachers, detailed and illustrated procedures for doing activities, and supplemental resources provide you and your class with tools to investigate and understand Earth’s major geologic phenomena.
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Scientific habits of mind
Using scientific equipment
|Intended User Role:||Elementary-Level Educator, Middle-Level Educator, New Teacher, Teacher
Additions and Changes to Revised 2nd Edition
About Project Earth Science: Geology
Creating Scientific Knowledge
Observing and the Problem of Scale
Getting Ready for Classroom Instruction
Project Earth Science: Geology and the National Science Education Standards
Safety in the Classroom Practices
Standards Organizational Matrix
Activities at a Glance Matrix
Activity 1 Geopatterns: Global Earthquake Distribution
Activity 2 Volcanoes and Plates: Volcanic Activity and Plate Boundaries
Activity 3 Volcanoes and Hot Spots: Formation of Hawaiian Islands
Activity 4 All Cracked Up: Model of Earth’s Layers
Activity 5 Seafloor Spreading: Divergent Plate Boundaries
Activity 6 Mapping the Seafloor
Activity 7 Rocks Tell a Story: Rock Characteristics and Environmental Clues
Activity 8 The Rock Cycle: Rock Formation and Change
Activity 9 Solid or Liquid? Rock Behavior Within Earth
Activity 10 Edible Plate Tectonics: Plates Move and Interact
Activity 11 Convection: Transfer of Heat From Earth’s Interior
Activity 12 A Voyage Through Time: Pangaea Breakup and Continent/Plate Movement
Activity 13 Magma and Volcanoes: Model of a Volcano
Activity 14 Shake It Up: Earthquakes and Damage to Buildings
Activity 15 Study Your Sandwich: Sedimentary Rock Layers, Structures, and
Reading 1 Plate Tectonics
Reading 2 Volcanoes
Reading 3 Earthquakes
Reading 4 Rocks and Minerals
Reading 5 Careers in Geology and Geosciences
About the Authors
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National Standards Correlation
This resource has 44 correlations with the National Standards.
- Earth Science
- Properties of earth materials
- Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.
- Earth materials provide many of the resources that humans use.
- Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time.
- Changes in earth and sky
- The surface of the earth changes.
- Some changes to the surface of the Earth are due to slow processes, such as erosion and weathering
- Some changes to the surface of the Earth are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes
- Structure of the earth system
- The solid earth is layered with a lithosphere; hot, convecting mantle; and dense, metallic core. (5-8)
- Lithospheric plates on the scales of continents and oceans constantly move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle. (5-8)
- Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from the motions of lithospheric plates. (5-8)
- Land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces. (5-8)
- Constructive forces include crustal deformation, volcanic eruption, and deposition of sediment. (5-8)
- Destructive forces include weathering and erosion. (5-8)
- Some changes in the solid earth can be described as the "rock cycle." (5-8)
- Old rocks at the earth's surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. Eventually, those new rocks may be brought to the surface by the forces that drive plate motions, and the rock cycle continues. (5-8)
- Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. (5-8)
- Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. (5-8)
- Living organisms have played many roles in the earth system, including producing some types of rocks, and contributing to the weathering of rocks. (5-8)
- Earth's history
- The earth processes we see today, including erosion, movement of lithospheric plates, and changes in atmospheric composition, are similar to those that occurred in the past. (5-8)
- Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed (5-8)
- Origin and evolution of the earth system
- Geologic time can be estimated by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations. (9-12)
- We can observe some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale. (9-12)
- Many processes resulting in the ongoing evolution of the earth system, such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years. (9-12)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment. (K-4)
- Plan and conduct a simple investigation. (K-4)
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations. (9-12)
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world. (K-4)
- Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer.
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations. Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models. (5-8)
- Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations. (5-8)
- Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories. (5-8)
- Conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries. (9-12)
- Scientific explanations must adhere to criteria such as: a proposed explanation must be logically consistent; it must abide by the rules of evidence; it must be open to questions and possible modification; and it must be based on historical and current scientific knowledge. (9-12)
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Natural hazards
- Internal and external processes of the earth system cause natural hazards (disasters), events that change or destroy human and wildlife habitats, damage property, and harm or kill humans. (5-8)
- Natural hazards(disasters), include earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, floods, storms, and even possible impacts of asteroids.(5-8)
- Human activities can induce hazards through resource acquisition. Such activities accelerate many natural changes. (5-8)
- Natural resources
- The earth does not have infinite resources. (9-12)
- Increasing human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes that renew some resources, and it depletes those resources that cannot be renewed. (9-12)
- Content Standards
- Quality Teaching
- Deepens educators’ content knowledge, provides them with research-based instructional strategies to assist students in meeting rigorous academic standards, and prepares them to use various types of classroom assessments appropriately. (NSDC)
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