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  • Layered Liquids

    Book Chapter | May 2009

    This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a…

  • Fun with liquid nitrogen

    Book Chapter | September 2012

    Iron is solid, mercury is liquid, and nitrogen is a gas. Liquid nitrogen is used to perform lots of interesting and fun experiments. Demonstrations exploiting the extreme cold of liquid nitrogen provide entertainment…

  • Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    Book Chapter | March 2019

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about the concept of matter. It is designed to find out how students define matter and whether they recognize that all three states—solids, liquids, and…

  • Energy Transfer Between Liquids

    Book Chapter | May 2019

    The guiding question of this investigation is, How can we predict how much the temperature of 100 ml of water will change when we add different amounts of hot water to it? In this lesson, the goal is to figure out a…

  • Engineering Your Own Liquid Soap

    Journal Article | March 2021

  • Solid or Liquid? Rock Behavior Within Earth

    Book Chapter | April 2011

  • Disequilibrium: Layered Liquids

    Journal Article | April 2017

    This column shows how to use discrepant events to confront misconceptions. Students may hold onto the misconception that all liquids naturally combine when put into the same container (e.g., adding food coloring to…

  • Disequilibrium: Oobleck: Is It a Solid or Liquid?

    Journal Article | July 2018

    This column shows how to use discrepant events to confront misconceptions. This article discusses two engagement activities using oobleck.

  • Are Clouds a Solid, Liquid, or Gas?

    Journal Article | April 2017

    Confronting fifth graders’ misconceptions about states of matter and the water cycle

  • Editor's Corner: Liquid Gold

    Journal Article | September 2006

    As prices soar to over $3 a gallon, “it” has become a hotly contested political issue. Wars and other international conflicts have erupted over access to “it,” and pumping “it” out of the ground has become more and more…

  • Science Shorts: Comparing Liquids

    Journal Article | December 2008

    Children experience the physical properties of liquids as they watch raindrops run down a window, observe how insects can walk on water, and notice how the “shape” of a liquid matches the container in which it is held.…

  • Sensing Matter—Is It a Liquid or Solid?

    Journal Article | November 2016

    Students classify materials based on physical properties.

  • Science 101: How Does a Thermos “Know” to Keep Hot Liquids Hot and Cold Liquids Cold?

    Journal Article | April 2018

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. This issue discusses heat transfer.

  • Blue Solids, Red Liquids, and Yellow Gases

    Journal Article | February 2000

    During this eye-opening unit, students create visual representations of some very abstract concepts, and in the process eliminate many of their misconceptions about matter. All you need are some colored pencils and…

  • Science 101: What Is the Difference Between Solids and Liquids?

    Journal Article | July 2013

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. This month’s issue discusses the definitions of solids and liquids.

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