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  • Is It a Solid?

    Book Chapter | June 2009

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about solids. It is designed to reveal the macroscopic and/or microscopic properties students use to decide whether a material is a solid. Elementary…

  • Solids and Holes

    Book Chapter | January 2007

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about density. The task is designed to find out if students think a solid object will float differently if it has holes poked all the way through it or…

  • Rock Solid Science

    Book Chapter | April 2012

    Children are naturally curious about the world around them, including the rocks beneath their feet. By observing, describing, and sorting a variety of rocks, students can discover that rocks have certain physical…

  • Rock-Solid Evidence

    Book Chapter | May 2016

    Many students have never looked carefully at rocks. For this reason, looking closely at several different types of rocks is important for preparing them to learn about how rocks are classified. In this chapter, one goal…

  • Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    Book Chapter | March 2019

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about the concept of matter. It is designed to find out how students define matter and whether they recognize that all three states—solids, liquids, and…

  • Deconstructing Solids

    Journal Article | March 2020

  • Solid or Liquid? Rock Behavior Within Earth

    Book Chapter | April 2011

  • Rock Solid

    Journal Article | February 2003

    A teacher describes how developing a structured, focused, and fun curriculum on rocks and minerals for learning-disabled students transformed her initial reluctance about Earth science into enthusiasm. Students observed…

  • Disequilibrium: Oobleck: Is It a Solid or Liquid?

    Journal Article | July 2018

    This column shows how to use discrepant events to confront misconceptions. This article discusses two engagement activities using oobleck.

  • Are Clouds a Solid, Liquid, or Gas?

    Journal Article | April 2017

    Confronting fifth graders’ misconceptions about states of matter and the water cycle

  • Sensing Matter—Is It a Liquid or Solid?

    Journal Article | November 2016

    Students classify materials based on physical properties.

  • Editor's Roundtable: Rock-Solid Standards

    Journal Article | December 2012

    Science Scope’s editor shares thoughts regarding the current issue.

  • Blue Solids, Red Liquids, and Yellow Gases

    Journal Article | February 2000

    During this eye-opening unit, students create visual representations of some very abstract concepts, and in the process eliminate many of their misconceptions about matter. All you need are some colored pencils and…

  • Safer Science: Geology—Rock Solid Safety

    Journal Article | March 2008

    Although perceived as having a lower level of safety issues compared to chemistry or biology laboratories, Earth-space science and geology classes have their share of challenges. In fact, a number of safety concerns…

  • Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Solid? Claim Cards and Argumentation

    Journal Article | July 2013

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month’s issue discusses students' ideas about solids and the macroscopic properties they use to decide whether a material is a solid.

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