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  • The Ocean

    Book Chapter | September 2011

    The characteristics of the different parts of the ocean vary depending on the region. While the coastal ocean changes rapidly and presents the largest amount of biological activity, it also shows the largest exchanges…

  • Ocean Layers

    Book Chapter | September 2011

    Ocean water is not the same everywhere. In some places, the water is colder or deeper than in other places. Some parts are denser or contain differing amounts of dissolved salts than other parts. All these things affect…

  • Oceans and Climate

    Book Chapter | December 2016

    In this lesson, students will explore how oceans mitigate climate at midlatitudes. Disciplinary core ideas covered are the roles of water in Earth’s surface processes and weather and climate. Tips for scaling down,…

  • Oceans on the Move

    Book Chapter | May 2016

    Many middle school students still struggle with the concept of density, without which it is difficult to understand overturning circulation. This chapter begins with physical models of temperature and saline density…

  • Ocean Influences Climate

    Journal Article | March 2022

  • Current Events in the Ocean

    Book Chapter | September 2011

    Sailors have known for centuries that ocean currents can speed up or slow down a ship. In modern times, scientists have discovered that ocean currents have major effects on climate and weather patterns, and on the…

  • The Ocean: A Global View

    Book Chapter | September 2011

    The ocean plays a fundamental role in many ways: from affecting the global climate and its variability, to phenomena such as El Niño, to the dispersal of pollutants such as oil spills. Understanding the dynamics…

  • Why is the Ocean Salty?

    Book Chapter | March 2016

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about the ocean’s salinity. This probe is best used with grades 5–12, and is designed to uncover students’ ideas about the role of landforms and rivers…

  • The Ocean on Top of a Mountain

    Book Chapter | May 2016

    In this chapter, students will simulate the “life” of a mountain and then think about what traces of each stage of the mountain’s life are present at the end of the simulation. Then they will read about the Burgess…

  • How Many Oceans and Seas?

    Book Chapter | March 2016

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about the ocean and seas. The probe is designed to reveal whether students use geographic names and locations to consider the number of separate oceans…

  • What's the Big Deal About Ocean Acidification?

    Journal Article | March 2022

  • Inquiry at the Ocean Research College Academy (ORCA)

    Book Chapter | April 2009

    The Ocean Research College Academy (ORCA) is a full-time, dual credit, early college program designed exclusively for Washington State Running Start (juniors and seniors in high school) students. Students in ORCA are…

  • Drops to the Ocean: A GIS Study of River Basins

    Book Chapter | April 2009

    Water is a critical element of life. It plays a crucial role at many scales from singles cells to huge river systems. In this investigation, students explore local, regional, and global river basins using GIS as a tool…

  • Does the Ocean Influence Our Weather or Climate?

    Book Chapter | March 2016

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about the connection between the oceans and weather and climate. The probe is designed to reveal how students think the ocean influences atmospheric…

  • Uncovering Student Ideas About Earth’s Defining Feature: The Ocean

    Journal Article | March 2022

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