By: Juanita Constible, Luke Sandro, and Richard E. Lee, Jr.
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Climate Change From Pole to Pole: Biology Investigations
Finalist for the 2009 AEP Distinguished Achievement Award
The Distinguished Achievement Award, from the Association of Educational Publishers, recognizes each year’s most outstanding materials in the field of teaching and learning.
|Type of Product:||NSTA Press Book (also see downloadable PDF version of this book)
|Grade Level:||High School, College
|Read Inside:||Read a sample chapter: Now You “Sea” Ice,
Now You Don’t
Our reviewers—top-flight teachers and other outstanding science educators—have determined that this resource is among the best available supplements for science teaching.
[Read the full review]
Climate Change From Pole to Pole: Biology Investigations offers timely, relevant, biology-based case studies and background information on how to teach the science of climate change. The six painstakingly researched and field-tested activities, which build on four content chapters, give students the opportunity to solve real-life scientific problems using guiding questions, graphs and data tables, short reading assignments, and independent research.
This volume provides an authentic and rigorous way to engage students in science and environmental issues—scientific methods, evidence, climate, and biological effects of climate change—and is a unique and essential resource for your high school or college-level classroom.
(mouse over for full classification)
Global climate change
Scientific habits of mind
Science and technological challenges in society
|Intended User Role:||College/University Professor (core science discipline), College/University Professor (preservice science education), Curriculum Supervisor, High-School Educator, Learner, Professional Development Provider, Teacher
|Educational Issues:||Assessment of students, Classroom management, Community involvement, Curriculum, Educational research, Inquiry learning, Instructional materials, Interdisciplinary, Integrating technology, Professional development, Teacher content knowledge, Teacher preparation, Teaching strategies
How to Use This Book
Climate Change Case Studies (Chapters 5–10): Their Focus, Use, and Curriculum Connections
About the Authors
Part I—The Science
of Climate Change
CHAPTER 1—CLIMATE AND LIFE
The Biological Role of Climate
The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
CHAPTER 2—EARTH’S CHANGING CLIMATE
How Is Climate Change Detected?
What Is the Evidence for Climate Change?
Why Is Climate Change Occurring?
Why Is Climate Change Important?
CHAPTER 3—BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
How Are Biological Effects Detected?
How Have Biological Systems Changed?
Climate Change in the Classroom
CHAPTER 4—QUICK GUIDE TO CLIMATE
How Earth’s Climate Works
How Earth’s Climate Is Changing
How Climate Change Is Affecting Living Things
Frequently Asked Questions
Part II—Climate Change Case Studies
CONNECTIONS TO STANDARDS
CHAPTER 5—NOW YOU “SEA” ICE, NOW YOU DON’T: Penguin communities shift on the Antarctic Peninsula
At a Glance
Warming Climate, Waning Sea Ice
Student Page 5.1: Specialist Fact Sheet
Student Page 5.2: Ornithologists (Adélie Penguin Data Set)
Student Page 5.3: Oceanographers (Sea Ice Data Set)
Student Page 5.4: Meteorologists (Winter Snow Data Set)
Student Page 5.5: Marine Ecologists (Chinstrap Penguin Data Set)
Student Page 5.6: Fisheries Biologists (Krill Data Set)
Student Page 5.7: Specialist Group Report Sheet
CHAPTER 6—POPULATION PERIL: Polar bears decline in the Canadian Arctic
At a Glance
Ice Is Life
Going, Going, Gone?
Student Page 6.1: Scenario and Polar Bear 101
Student Page 6.2: Arriving in Churchill
Student Page 6.3: Effect of Fire on Polar Bear Dens
Student Page 6.4: Capturing and Collaring Polar Bears
Student Page 6.5: Extinction?
CHAPTER 7—CARRION: IT’S WHAT’S FOR DINNER Wolves reduce the impact of climate change
At a Glance
Wolves as Keystones
Winter on the Northern Range
Let It Snow!
Student Page 7.1Meet Dr. Chris Wilmers
CHAPTER 8—RIGHT PLACE, WRONG TIME
Phenological mismatch in the Mediterranean
At a Glance
Timing Is Everything
Student Page 8.1: Reporting Form
Student Page 8.2: Consensus Form
Student Page 8.3: Data Sets
CHAPTER 9—AH-CHOO! Pollen allergies increase in the Northern Hemisphere
At a Glance
Faster, Longer, and More Severe
Student Page 9.1: Scenario
Student Page 9.2: Procedure
Student Page 9.3: Planning Worksheet
Student Page 9.4: Peer Review Form
Student Page 9.5: Data Folder and Internet Resources
CHAPTER 10—CRUEL, CRUEL SUMMER
Heat waves increase from pole to pole
At a Glance
Too Hot to Handle
Who’s at Risk?
Hot Versus Cold
Making Science and Math Relevant
Student Page 10.1: Scenario Letter
Student Page 10.2: Epidemiology 101
Student Page 10.3: Research Questions and Expectations
APPENDIX 10.1: EXAMPLES OF DATA ANALYSIS FOR “CRUEL, CRUEL SUMMER”
Question 1: How Are Mortality Rates in Our Area Related to Temperature?
Question 2: Is Heat-Related Mortality Risk Higher in Early Summer or Late Summer?
Question 3: Does the Homicide Rate in Our Area Increase During Hot Years?
Question 4: Is There an Increase in Mortality Risk Due to Infectious Disease
During Heat Waves?
Customers who bought this item also bought
National Standards Correlation
This resource has 98 correlations with the National Standards.
- Physical Science
- Interactions of energy and matter
- Electromagnetic waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. (9-12)
- Life Science
- Populations and ecosystems
- A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. (5-8)
- All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem. (5-8)
- Energy passes from organism to organism in food webs (5-8)
- The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.
- Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate, limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem. (5-8)
- Biological evolution
- Species evolve over time. (9-12)
- Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes. (9-12)
- Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of a finite supply of the resources required for life. (9-12)
- Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring. (9-12)
- Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well as for the striking molecular similarities observed among the diverse species of living organisms. (9-12)
- The millions of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent from common ancestors. (9-12)
- Interdependence of organisms
- Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers. (9-12)
- Organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems. (9-12)
- Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. (9-12)
- Human beings live within the world's ecosystems. (9-12)
- Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. (9-12)
- Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected. (9-12)
- An example of habitat destruction is the pollution of the oceans. (9-12)
- Matter, energy, and organization in living systems
- Living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations. With death, and the cessation of energy input, living systems rapidly disintegrate. (9-12)
- Plants capture energy by absorbing light and using it to form strong (covalent) chemical bonds between the atoms of carbon-containing (organic) molecules. These molecules can be used to assemble larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, sugars, and fats). (9-12)
- Energy stored in bonds between the atoms (chemical energy) can be used as sources of energy for life processes. (9-12)
- The chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy. (9-12)
- The complexity and organization of organisms accommodates the need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain the organism. (9-12)
- As matter and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems--cells, organs, organisms, communities--and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. (9-12)
- Behavior of organisms
- Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. (9-12)
- Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. (9-12)
- The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. (9-12)
- In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them. (9-12)
- Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. (9-12)
- Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organism's own species and others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. (9-12)
- The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. (9-12)
- Animals often live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants also respond to stimuli. (9-12)
- Like other aspects of an organism's biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. (9-12)
- Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles. (9-12)
- Earth Science
- Energy in the earth system
- Heating of earth's surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. (9-12)
- Global climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near the earth's surface. (9-12)
- The greenhouse effect is the warming effect on the air caused by heat rising from the surface of the Earth and being trapped by gases in the troposphere. (9-12)
- The energy transfer from the sun at and near the earth's surface is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and the earth's rotation, and static conditions such as the position of mountain ranges and oceans. (9-12)
- Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.
- Communicate investigations and explanations.
- Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
- Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
- Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
- Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
- Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. (9-12)
- Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. (9-12)
- Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. (9-12)
- Communicate and defend a scientific argument. (9-12)
- Understandings about scientific inquiry
- Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).
- Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. (K-4)
- Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry. (9-12)
- In presenting data, graphs are used to convey comparisons or trends. (9-12)
- Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
- Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions. (9-12)
- Implement a proposed solution. (9-12)
- Communicate the problem, process, and solution. (9-12)
- Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Changes in environments
- Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. Some changes are good, some are bad, and some are neither good nor bad.
- Risks and benefits
- Students should understand the risks associated, with biological hazards (pollen, viruses, bacterial, and parasites). (5-8)
- Personal and community health
- The severity of disease symptoms is dependent on many factors, such as human resistance and the virulence of the disease-producing organism. (9-12)
- Natural and human-induced hazards
- Normal adjustments of earth may be hazardous for humans. (9-12)
- Humans live at the interface between the atmosphere driven by solar energy and the upper mantle where convection creates changes in the earth's solid crust. (9-12)
- As societies have grown, become stable, and come to value aspects of the environment, vulnerability to natural processes of change has increased. (9-12)
- Human activities can enhance potential for hazards. (9-12)
- Pollutants are dumped into the oceans of the Earth. (9-12)
- Some hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe weather, are rapid and spectacular. But there are slow and progressive changes that also result in problems for individuals and societies. (9-12)
- Natural and human-induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk. (9-12)
- Many changes in the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society, as well as cause risks. (9-12)
- Students should understand the costs and trade-offs of various hazards--ranging from those with minor risk to a few people to major catastrophes with major risk to many people. (9-12)
- The scale of events and the accuracy with which scientists and engineers can (and cannot) predict events are important considerations. (9-12)
- Sci and Tech in local, natl, and global challenges
- Understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology should precede active debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various science- and technology-related challenges. (9-12)
- Understanding science alone will not resolve local, national, or global challenges. (9-12)
- Humans have a major effect on other species. (9-12)
- The influence of humans on other organisms occurs through pollution--which changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water. (9-12)
- History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
- Scientists have ethical traditions. (9-12)
- Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making public the results of work. Violations of such norms do occur, but scientists responsible for such violations are censured by their peers. (9-12)
- Science is not separate from society but rather science is a part of society. (9-12)
- Nature of science
- Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models. Those ideas are not likely to change greatly in the future. (5-8)
- Although all scientific ideas are tentative and subject to change and improvement in principle, for most major ideas in science, there is much experimental and observational confirmation. (5-8)
- Scientists do and have changed their ideas about nature when they encounter new experimental evidence that does not match their existing explanations.
- In areas where active research is being pursued and in which there is not a great deal of experimental or observational evidence and understanding, it is normal for scientists to differ with one another about the interpretation of the evidence or theory being considered. (5-8)
- Different scientists might publish conflicting experimental results or might draw different conclusions from the same data. (5-8)
- Ideally, scientists acknowledge such conflict and work towards finding evidence that will resolve their disagreement. (5-8)
- It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists. As scientific knowledge evolves, major disagreements are eventually resolved through such interactions between scientists. (5-8)
- Evaluation includes reviewing the experimental procedures, examining the evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations. (5-8)
- Although scientists may disagree about explanations of phenomena, about interpretations of data, or about the value of rival theories, they do agree that questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integral to the process of science. (5-8)
- Nature of scientific knowledge
- Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge through the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism, as scientists strive for the best possible explanations about the natural world. (9-12)
- Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria. (9-12)
- Scientific explanations should be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public. (9-12)
- Because all scientific ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation, all scientific knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes available. (9-12)
- Process Standards for Professional Development
- Introduce teachers to scientific literature, media, and technological resources that expand their science knowledge and their ability to access further knowledge. (NSES)
- Teaching Standards
- Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students.
- Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners.
- Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers
- Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science.
- Teachers provide students with the time, space, and resources needed to learn science.
- Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.
- Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students.
- Identify and use resources outside
- Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry.
- Nurture collaboration among students.
“By connecting climate science, the effects of climate change and the scientific method, this book is an excellent resource for high school science classrooms. Part I of the book provides background information on climate change including the scientific basics of how Earth’s climate is regulated, the general effects of climate on the planet’s biology, and the scientific processes by which climate change and its effects are determined. Part II of the book offers six case studies, each of which allows students to display and interpret actual data to form their own hypotheses about how climate change is affecting various forms of life on Earth. Studies include declining populations of Adélie penguins in Antarctica and polar bears in the Canadian Arctic, the positive effect that wolves in Wyoming have on climate change and the effect of climate change on pollen allergies in the Northern Hemisphere. Each case study is organized into a lesson with specific teacher procedures, and includes blackline student handouts. Also included is a chart which outlines the specific scientific literacy skills that each case study develops (and connections to the National Science Education Standards), level of difficulty and classroom time.”
Green Teacher, Winter 2010-2011
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